By the 1870’s, Andrew Jackson Ougheltree owned Lots 3, 4, and 5 of Los Tularcitos, and had established a cattle ranching operation. To assure an adequate supply of water for the needs of the land and his cattle, Ougheltree sought out to establish water rights for the Rancho. On December 19,1874, OUghletree entered into an argument with the owner of the Los Laureles Rancho, and the San Francisco investor, N.W. Spaulding and his partner E. Tripp, by which he gave Spaulding and Tripp a right-of-way over the affected portion of the Tularcitos Rancho for the construction of a ditch or flume ( the “Laureles Ditch”) to carry water from the Carmel River to the Los Laureles Rancho. In exchange, Ougheltree was granted a right-of-way to construct a “V” flume across the Laureles Ranch to carry lumber. As a condition to such agreement, Ougheltree was required to provide bridges at crossing (See, Vol. B Agreements Pg.141). Another agreement between the same parties granted similar rights-of-way but provided that the owners of the Laureles Rancho provide troughs to water Ogheltree’s stock (R-288).
On December 23,1876, Ougheltree granted an additional right-of-way to expand the existing “Laureles Ditch” and flume across his property, which was witnessed by Spaulding’s ranch manager, Kinzie Clinkingbeard.
In the U.S Agricultural Census for 1880, it is shown that OUghletree had 100 acres of improved lands (cultivated). Irrigation for Ougheltree’s crips was made possible by appropriation of water from the Carmel River and its tributaries. The Census showed Ougheltree also had leased land - this was for the diary that was located on the property known as the “Tularcitos Dairy” The Tularcitos Dairy was considered a large diary of its time which would have meant 200 cors, more or less.
In September 1882, Ougheltree filed an appropriation claim for waters of the San Clemente Creek, 2.5 miles from its mouth to serve his land. The method of such appropriation was by dam and ditches.
The Agricultural Census for 1880 further showed 100 improved acres and 185 milk cows for S.B Gordon, thus, evidencing the existence of another dairy and further cultivation.
By 1878 the possibilities for sound investment in the Monterey Peninsula had attracted the attention of history’s “Big Four,” Coils Pattern Huntington, Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins, and Charles Crocker. On November 4,1878 they formed the Pacific Improvement Company, a large holding company with interests throughout the western United States and Central America in real estate development, coal mining, oil fields, railroads, streetcar, and steamship transportation systems and resort properties. In1880, the Pacific Improvement Company constructed the Hotel Del Monte at Monterey, which was compared in the promotional literature of the day to the grand summer hotels of the eastern seaboard. With direct ties and predictably favorable fares on the Southern Pacific Rail Lines and passenger steamers, the Company sought to attract a worldwide clientele, promoting the winter sunshine to Easterners and Europeans while boasting of cool summers to California’s. Water for the hotel operations (east of its 89 suites featured its own bath, in addition to “modern conveniences” for the remaining 39 single rooms, plus kitchen, fire extinguishers, tropical landscaping, and fountains!), was supplied by an artesian well on the premises.
Seeking to provide a company-owned supply of meat and dairy products, in addition to expanding its resort facilities and securing valuable outlying lands, the Pacific Improvement Company purchased all of the Los Laureles Ranch on August 6, 1862, from Frederick Getchell and Frank Hinckley. The deed specifically included the 8-mile long “Laureles Ditch” from Los Tularcitos, the Carmel RIver and all water rights and right-of-way. Plans to secure a continuous water supply for the needs of the Company on the Monterey Peninsula became apparent during August and September of the same year, when Company Director Carlos P. Huntington began.
It appears that the above-mentioned rights-of-way were never reconveyed, but that they were abandoned over time as new technology developed.
Purchasing rights-of-way and water rights from a continuous line of property owners along the Carmel River, from Township 17 South Range 2 East of the public lands to the mouth of the Valley.
(See, attached plot map).
On April 7, 1883, shortly after securing a right-of-way from Rufus Smith of Rancho Los Tularcitos, who claimed the water rights recorded by Ougheltree in 1976, the Pacific Improvement Company filed a Declaration of Intent to divert and appropriate waters of the Carmel River by erection of a dam and use iron pipe 18 inches in diameter, the dam to be erected on the line dividing the northwest and southwest quarters of Section 24, Township 17 South, Range 2 East. Construction of the dam and associated work was carried out in 1883 and 1884 and became known as the San Clemente Dam.
The Company continues to buy up the land surrounding the San Clemente Dam in the early part of the 1900’s, and ultimately become the Monterey County Water Works which was purchased in 1935 by the California Water and Telephone Company, the predecessor to Cal-Am.
It appears that the above mentioned rights-of-way were never reconveyed, but that they were abandoned over time as new technology developed.
Cultivation of the soil seemed to be the only answer to droughts like the one in 1862-1875, the results of cultivation by gang plow, invented the U.S. in 1837 by John Deere, were dearly to be seen. Indeed, Cyrus MacCormack’s reaper meant that a man could produce seven times as much hay as his father, and seventeen times as much wheat! In 1865, barley, and later wheat production, reached considerable importance.
Undoubtedly, the inventions of the 1840;s in the American East contributed immeasurably to the rise of agriculture in the West. Because local agricultural consumption was small, however, it was not until transportation and distribution facilities were developed that agriculture became truly profitable. In 1866, Captain Moss built the landing which now bears his name, from which the Pacific Coast Steamship Company provided service between Monterey and San Francisco. In addition, the extension of the Southern Pacific Railroad southward from San Francisco was an important influence on the development of the country through which it passed. As transportation developed, the ability to export grain and agricultural products grew, and eventually wheat and crops were planted where the flocks and cattle had grazed. By 1881, ranching in Monterey County and the Carmel Valley had been reduced considerably.